PAG INA de COrHETES

 

The rockets are very complicated machines that have taken to the man until the Moon. They have very powerful motors that cause that the rockets fly quicker than a bullet. The fuel of the rockets can be liquid or solid, of all ways these are burned producing gases that leave to much speed of the nozzles causing that the rocket is impelled. The rockets must take great fuel tanks. To the used being the fuel, these tanks fall again to the Earth again (in many cases) to be reused.

It is the vehicle that has allowed the man to leave the Earth to initiate the great epic of the space reconnaissance. Known from the antiquity and used during centuries as instrument military, only for relatively just a short time the rocket it has been considered as average Pacific of propulsion able to overcome the attractive force that maintains us united to our planet.

Its effective development began shortly after World War II and after to have been, once again, used by the man as death instrument.

By rocket an aerodynamic bobbin is understood habitually that it contains in his interior a motor to reaction, the deposits for the propulsive and the call “payload? to transport, and that is able to rise vertically or with a certain inclination from the ground or the air.

The heart of a vehicle of this type is the motor to reaction or rocket, that can to provide the necessary push to its movement being useful the physical principle action and reaction. On the basis of this principle, statement for the first time by Isaac Newton (1642-1727), to all action corresponds an equal and opposite reaction (third law of the movement). In this motor the action is represented by a particle flux produced by means of chemical and/or physical processes of diverse type, who is expelled at highest speeds in a certain direction; the reaction, however, is represented by the movement of the vehicle in the opposed direction of that one in that the particles are expelled.

HISTORY

The first news that is had of its use is of year 1232, in China, where the powder was invented, reason why the origin of the rocket is probably Eastern.

Flying Fire Arrows in century XIII, defense of the capital of the Chinese province of Henan exist stories of the use of called rockets.

The rockets were introduced in Europe by the Arabs.

During centuries XV and XVI it was used as incendiary device. Later, with the improvement of the artillery, the warlike rocket disappeared until century XIX, and was used again during the Napoleonic Wars.

The rockets of English colonel William Congreve were used in Spain during the site of Cadiz (1810), in the first Carlist War (1833 - 1840) and during the war of Morocco (1860).

At the end of century XIX and principles of century XX, they appeared the first scientists who turned to the rocket into a system to drive manned aerospace vehicles. Among them they honor the Russian Konstantín Tsiolkovski, the German Hermann Oberth and the American Robert Hutchings Goddard, and, later the Russians Serguéi Koroliov and Valentin Gruchensko and the German Wernher von Braun.

The rockets constructed by Goddard, although small, already had all the principles of the modern rockets, as direction by gyroscopes, for example.

Launching of a rocket Bumper 2 by the EE.UU in July of 1950 in Cabo Cañaveral. This rocket was an adapted V-2. The Germans, led by Wernher von Braun, developed during World War II the rockets V-1 and V-2 (A-4 in the German terminology), that were the base for the investigations on rockets of the EE.UU and the USSR in the postwar period. Both Nazi pumps, used to bomb Paris and London at the end of the war, can be defined as missiles. Really, the V-1 does not get to be a rocket, but a missile that flies as a jet-powered airplane.

 

 

Beam click in the photo to construct rockets!

 

 

MartianModel in miniature of the Mars Surveyor that even works with solar cells!

LANDERS

SATELLITES

Lander

satellite

Some rockets send soundings to the space to explore others planets. These soundings even drop called robots Landers in the surface of you raise them. This robot can take samples from dust of the surface, of the air as well as photographies of the planet to be sent to the Earth. In 1997 a called robot Pathfinder sent images of the Mars surface.

MartianGive a look him to the site of the NASA of the Mars Surveyor for more information on this robot!

The artificial satellites turn around the Earth in different ways or “orbits?. These send information on the climate, environmental contamination and until the destruction of the tropical forests. Nowadays the satellites designed for the communication and the GPS call or Global positioning system are many that serve the military to them to even guide themselves during the darkness or in case of bad climate.

MartianMore information on satellites and space science.

 

 

MISSIONS OF SPACE PROBES

 

VIKING

1976

Landers amartizaron in the Martian surface but they did not find life of any type.

VOYAGER

1977

It visited Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Urano and sent excellent photos of his moons.

MAGALLANES

1990

It visited Venus

GALILEO

1995

He explored the Jupiter atmosphere.

PATHFINDER

1997

The Lander explored Mars

ROSETTA

2008

The Rosetta sounding of the European Space Agency completely is prepared to fly over in very few hours the Steins asteroid to only 800 kilometers of distance of its surface. For it has realised several corrective maneuvers of the trajectory and maintains ignitions all instruments that already are being focused towards Steins to collect all the possible data of this interesting asteroid. During the day of yesterday 4 of September, Andrea Accomazzo, director of operations of the ESOC ship confirmed that the Corrective maneuver of Trayectoria (TCM) would modify the speed of the ship in 11,8 cm/seg in the perpendicular direction of the one of the flight of Rosetta. The data confirming that the TCM had been executed successfully were sent to 08:56 GMT, but they were received in the Earth to 09:16 GMT due to the 20 minutes that the information needs to arrive at our planet. In the includos data are measurements of distance to the ship and more images of the campaign of optical pursuit of Steins.

LUNAR PROSPECTOR

1998

It explored the Moon. Was made it hit against the surface to find water.

ROBOT OPPORTUNITY

2008

The Opportunity robot of the NASA has climbed until leaving the great crater that is examining from its interior from the past month of September of the past year. “Rover it is again in level ground?, shelp Paolo Bellutta, engineer of the JPL that directs it, in the announcement to the international team of scientists and engineers of the mission.

 

 

WISE PEOPLE WHO?FERRY

Yuri Gagarin was the first man in the space. This Russian astronaut made this historical flight in 1961!

The first man who walked in the Moon was Neil Armstrong in 1969. When lowering he shelp “This is a small passage for the man but a great jump for the humanity?

Some astronauts (most of Russian they) have remained in the space by more of a year!

The astronauts grow 5cm in the space because their bones do not receive the influence of the gravity.

In order to sleep in the space he must be tied to his bed to avoid that they float!

Most of the food of the astronauts is dehydrated (dry), before eating it must spill a little water in its containers.

 

shuttle

MartianTo return to ORIGINALDUSTCOVER