HELIOS is the name that old the Greeks gave the Sun to which they adored as a God. The sumerian ones, like the Greeks, also thought that its God Sun, Shamash, was lead through sky in a car, one of whose wheels it represented the solar disc. A similar car assumed that it transported to the God Indra Hindi of this the west. The powerful God Egyptian sun, Ra, made its daily trips in a boat.
It is easy to understand that the primitive man thought that the Sun was a God since this era its only heat and light source. When the man began to practice agriculture happened to depend more on the Sun, and even vió forced to invent the rudiments of astronomy to be able to predict the stations. Many of the old temples, pyramids and monuments had astronomical meaning since they were cuidadosamnete oriented to make astronomical observations.
Still about century 17 one thought of the Sun as a God, because in 1612 the announcement of Galileo Galilei of which it had seen with his telescope sunspots attracted envelope he critical it of the wise people and the monks the same, since it was shelp that the Sun was “immaculate” and therefore it could not have spots.
The Sun is the most important element in our Solar System and the star nearest our planet. It is the greatest object and it approximately contains 98% of the total mass of the Solar System. One hundred nine Earth would be required to complete the solar disc, and its interior could contain more than 1,3 million Earth. Visible the outer shell of the Sun is called the photosphere and has a temperature of 6,000
°C. This layer has an appearance stained due to the turbulent eruptions of energy in the surface.
The solar energy is created inside the Sun. It is where temperature (15,000,000 here
°C) and the pressure (340 billions of times the pressure of the Earth air to the sea level) is so intense that the nuclear reactions take to end. These reactions cause to nuclei of four protons either hydrogen to be fused together and to form an alpha particle or helium nucleus. The alpha particle has near 0.7 percent less mass than four protons. The difference in the mass is expelled as energy and is taken to the surface of the Sun, through a process known as convection, where to light and heat are freed. The generated energy in center of the Sun takes a million years to reach the solar surface. Every second 700 million tons of hydrogen become helium ashes. In the process 5 million tons of pure energy are freed; thus, the Sun every time becomes lighter.
The chromosphere is on the photosphere. The solar energy happens through this one region in its trajectory of exit of the Sun. The Fáculas and sparkles rise to the chromosphere. The Fáculas are luminous shining hydrogen clouds and which form on the regions where the sunspots form. The sparkles are filaments shining of hot gas and emerge from the regions of sunspots. The sunspots are dark depressions in the photosphere with a temperature average of 4,000
The crown is the outer part of the solar atmosphere. It is in this one region where they appear the solar eruptions. The solar eruptions are immense shining gas clouds that form in the part superior of the chromosphere. The external regions of the crown stretch towards the space and consist of particles that travel slowly moving away of the Sun. The crown can be seen only during the total Sun eclipses.
The sun apparently has been active by 4.600 million years and has sufficient fuel to remain active more by other five billions of years. To the aim of its life, the Sun will begin to fuse helium with its heavier elements and will begin to swell itself, finally it will be so great that it will absorb to the Earth. After billions of years as red giant, suddenly one will collapse in a white dwarf -- it will be the end of a star as we know it. It can take a trillion him from years to cool off completely.
A Sun eclipse takes place when the Moon is placed between this one and the Earth and intercepts the light rays that arrive until our planet. For a ground observer, the lunar disc interposes before the one of the Sun, that disappears wholly or partly of his seen, since not always the concealment is total. The solar eclipses can be total, annular or partial – if the Moon hides the solar disc only partially.
A Sun eclipse happens when the Earth happens through the shade of the Moon. An eclipse total Sun only happens during New Moon and when the Moon is directly between the Sun and the Earth, and it is located correctly to give the shade towards the Earth. When a total Sun eclipse happens, the shade of the Moon only covers a small portion with the Earth, where the eclipse is visible. While the Moon moves in its orbit (to 1km/s), the position of the shade changes, so that the total Sun eclipses usually last a minute or two in a certain place.
At old times, the people were scared to him to the solar eclipses (still in those times people realized of which the Sun was essential for the Earth life). Now the eclipses are of great interest for the public and solar astronomers. The eclipses give the opportunity to see the outer atmosphere of the Sun, the solar corona.
Since the eclipses happen with little frequency, the solar astronomers have construído special instruments, calls coronagraphs, to look at the Sun. The Coronagraphs block the originating light of the photosphere, allowing to observe lus become blurred by the crown. If sometimes you get to see a solar eclipse, assure to you not looking direct at the Sun! It always uses a safety technique.
First of these three classes it appears between the most beautiful phenomena to those than it can attend any person. On the other celestial chance, the apparent diameter of the Sun and the Moon is equivalent in spite of the difference of its real sizes. It is due to that the solar diameter is almost 400 times greater than the spot, and the Sun exactly is 400 times more far from the Earth than of the Moon. The result of this cosmic equation is that we see equal of great both in the sky.
The total Sun eclipses happen, of this form, when the Moon hides to the Sun entirely. In a preliminary stage of the phenomenon, the lunar disc – that we do not see because the Moon is in a new phase is come near to the lot and makes contact first with him; of some form it is the first mouthful that the Moon eats of the Sun. Gradually the colossal stellar sphere is reduced until the totality arrives.
The phase of totality of a solar eclipse passes in only some minutes. The maximum possible duration is of 7 minutes and average, but the habitual thing is that they are shorter. In the total Sun eclipses the strip from which is visible the totality has thousands of kilometers of length, but its width is very small, for that reason for the observation of the Sun at the time of the totality of an eclipse, expeditions to inhospitable countries are organized sometimes, and that the vision of this phenomenon, always extraordinary and spectacular although of few minutes of duration, has become pretext so that many fans realise “astronomical tourism”. The contemplation of the total phase of a solar eclipse turns out to be a spectacle difficult to narrate. To the appearance around the dark disc of the Moon of the protuberances of the Sun and the extensive crown with its filamentous structures, the unusual atmosphere must be added that takes place in broad daylight because of the sudden darkening of the star-king. The phenomenon goes accompanied of a whole series of peculiar reactions of the alive beings, who strangely accuse the arrival of the unexpected nocturnal condition. Against the total eclipse is annulling. If the Moon is near its apogee – the most distant point of its orbit around the earth its apparent size falls slightly, enough so that it is not as great as the Sun. When this happens, the Sun eclipse that in theory had to be total becomes annulling, since the Moon is within the solar disc, but it does not eclipse it in his totality. Around the lunar sphere it can turns a light ring that excels circularly. If in addition, the luminous ring is very fine, can turns the calls Grains of Baily, some the small solar brilliance that appears next to the edge of the Moon. Other times the alignment between the Sun, the Moon and the Earth is not exact and this causes that the concealment is only partial, and so a sector of the solar disc remains always visible. We were then before a partial eclipse. The main difference between a partial eclipse of Sun and one total is that in this one, when the hidden Moon to the star, can turns the solar corona, that extends to million kilometers over the chromosphere but he is invisible in normal conditions by the great brilliance. During a partial eclipse it is not possible to see the crown, since the light does not attenuate the sufficient thing for it.
TAKEN CARE OF:
You never observe the Sun or through lenses directly smoky. The Sun is so shining that it can damage to you permamentemente eyes.
As observing a solar eclipse
The popular belief that exists the best method for the vision of the partial phase of an eclipse is the use of a smoky crystal (nonadvisable method absolutely). It is evident that the possessor of a telescope will use the habitual methods for the observation of the sun
– projection, helioscope or filter of total opening, but for that reason the person that do not own one do not have to stop contemplating how the Moon goes “biting” to the Sun.
Nowadays other simpler procedures exist and effective for the direct observation of the Sun that the anachronistic crystal smoked, as much during an eclipse as in normal circumstances (consider that at first can also arrive at turns the great groups of spots).
The dark filters that are used in autogenous welding (green or dwelled) usually are sufficiently absorbent as giving a correct image of the Sun. To look it through one of such crystals does not represent, then, any danger.
Perhaps also a good filter, and of easier obtaining is the photographic films, whenever they are used as filter of direct observation (never in an optical instrument).These tails dark, that usually is rejected when the laboratory gives to a spool developing, constitute a good not them perhaps sufficiently opaque filter although, which is solved, simply, superposing two.
Of the photographic films the useful pieces are the “tails” of the spools, that have been guarded by the light and soon revealed, or are white/black or color.
- Also a black piece of fotolito is very effective of which they are used in graphical arts. It can would prepare so that, cut, it serves to provide filters to all the family or to a group of students of a training center. If, in addition the filters mount on a support type goggles so that not between no direct sun ray – what must be always procured, the vision can be perfect and comfortable.
No of these methods is totally safe, reason why we advised you that you use a pair of lenses for observation of eclipses done of mylar and you do not look at the Sun by more of